ON THE DIVERSITY IN BOTANIC SPECIES NAMES OF GENUS ACER IN BULGARIAN AND CZECH
This paper treats comparativaly - from a point of synchronous and diachronous view - names of botanic species from genus Acer in Bulgarian and Czech.
For the sake of convenience we use the Latin name of the genus, because the equivalents in Bulgarian are more than one. To clarify this lexical diversity, the aim of the paper is to trace back the etymology of
- the two common for Slavic languages words - javor/jawor/явор and klen/klon/клен
- the three specific for Bulgarian names - мекиш [mekish], шестил [shestil] and жешля [zheshlya]
The Latin botanic name is often a loan- translated into other languages - to create a name for a determined object:
Acer circinatum = javor okrouhlolisty, кръглолистен явор.
In other cases determined botanic species has a name different from the common, genus name. Referring to this it is of interest the lexical material that nominate species from genus Acer in Bulgarian and Czech. The name of the family to which this genus belongs is Aceraceae - translated into Czech as Javorovite and in Bulgarian - Яворови [ Yavorovi], Кленови [Klenovi].
At genus level the translation of Acer is respectively javor and явор [yavor], клен [klen], мекиш [mekish], шестил [shestil], жешля [zheshlya]. For this classification level the five Bulgarian words are synonymous but at species level they nominate related, but different trees.
Usually the Latin name of species consists of two components - the first one nominates the genus, the second one determines the species: Acer monspessulanum. In Czech all of the mentioned above species are also binaries - with first part javor , the second part specifies: Javor japonsky. The situation is different in Bulgarian - for three species we find three one-component names - in contrast to the rest two-component names. These specific words determine by themselves and there is no need to use another word for concretisation. - Etymology of javor/явор
According to Max Fasmer this tree had been not known in Proto-Slavonic lands. It occurs later after some migrations from Old-German forms *ahor, ahorn as avorn where -n drops out (elision because of its similarity to Slavonic adjective ending -ьnъ ).
- Etymology of мекиш [mekish]
Proto Slavonic **mekysь < *mek 'soft' - the term is related to the relatively softener wood (sycamore, maple tree are well-known for their extremely hard wood).
- Etymology of шестил [shestil] and жешля [zheshlya] is common.
жешля [zheshlya] is probably a fonetic transformation of dialectal жещель [zheshtel]. It sounds very close to шестил [shestil]. Fasmer finds a connection between Russian жерсть[zhertst], жерест [zherest] 'thick stick, bludgeon' ,from its side related to жестокий [zhestokiy] 'fearce, cruel'. It is known that acer in Latin means also 'fearful, cruel, sharp'. Fasmer shows relation between Latin acer, Danish ?r and German Ahorn ( *ahor/n/ ).
This way we find that явор [yavor], мекиш [mekish], шестил [shestil], жешля [zheshlya] could come from Latin acer - for явор [yavor] relation is fonetic; for шестил [shestil] and жешля [zheshlya] - semantic :
The words for two species from genus Acer - шестил [shestil] and жешля [zheshlya] - formally has preserved an ethno cultural term connection to the signed object. They could be considered as own, domestic words, as a translation of a loan-word possessing a character sign. The same loan-word, on the other hand, for specific linguistic conformities, the accepting language (Proto Slavonic) transforms into its own one.
О РАЗНООБРАЗИИ В НАИМЕНОВАНИЯХ РАСТИТЕЛЬНЬ_Х ВИДОВ РОДА ACER В БОЛГАРСКОМ И ЧЕШСКОМ ЯЗЬ_КЕ
В статье описаны наименования растительнь_х видов рода acer в болгарском и чешском язь_ках в синхронном и диохронном аспектах.